Database Management Basics

Database management is a system to manage information that is essential to the business operations of an organization. It involves storing and distributing data it to users and applications, editing it as needed, monitoring data changes, and preventing data corruption due to unexpected failure. It is an element of a company’s total informational infrastructure that aids in decision-making and corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) that allowed the storage and retrieve large amounts data for a variety of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database is a collection of tables that arrange data according to the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records, and also allows cross-references between tables. Each table contains a set of fields called attributes which provide information about data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most widely used type of database today. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it simpler to update data since it eliminates the necessity of changing several databases.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support multiple types of databases through different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level deals with costs, scalability and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is the way the database is represented in user interfaces and other applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on the various data models) and may also include virtual tables which are generated using generic data to improve performance.